1. a person whose residence and place of business are at a distance
2. something (as a geological feature) that is situated away from or classed differently from a main or related body
3. a statistical observation that is markedly different in value from the others of the sample
first known use: 1676 http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/outlier Find use of outlier in mathematics at http://mathworld.wolfram.com/Outlier.html
Véraison is a viticulture (grape-growing) term meaning "the onset of ripening". It is originally French, but has been adopted into English use. The official definition of veraison is "change of color of the grape berries." Fête de la Véraison is a medieval festival held in the famous winemaking village of Châteauneuf-du-Pape. See pictures at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Veraison
READER FEEDBACK I'm catching up on my Muses this morning. I noticed your link for U.S. Presidents and Vice Presidents. I'm surprised to notice how many Presidents served without a VP: Madison, Jackson, Filmore, Johnson (Andrew and Lyndon), Pierce, Arthur, Cleveland, McKinley, Teddy Roosevelt, Taft, Coolidge, Truman, Nixon, and Ford.
Do you know the rules for VP succession? It seems that the VP could only be appointed by election. For example, McKinley's first VP, Garret Hobart, died two years into the term. Teddy Roosevelt didn't become VP until McKinley's 1901 reelection. The VP oversees the Senate and breaks ties. Who would do that if there's no VP? The Muser finds that The office of president pro tempore is created by Article I, Section 3 of the Constitution: The Senate shall choose their other Officers, and also a President pro tempore, in the absence of the Vice President, or when he shall exercise the Office of President of the United States.
As President of the Senate, the Vice President has two primary duties: to cast a vote in the event of a Senate deadlock and to preside over and certify the official vote count of the U.S. Electoral College. In modern times, the Vice President rarely presides over day-to-day matters in the Senate; in his place, the Senate chooses a President pro tempore (or "president for a time") to preside in the Vice President's absence; the Senate normally selects the longest-serving senator in the majority party. The President pro tempore has the power to appoint any other senator to preside and in practice, junior senators from the majority party are assigned the task of presiding over the Senate at most times. Prior to ratification of the Twenty-fifth Amendment in 1967, no provision existed for filling a vacancy in the office of Vice President. Since the adoption of the Twenty-Fifth Amendment, the office has been vacant twice while awaiting confirmation of the new Vice President by both houses of Congress. The first such instance occurred in 1973 following the resignation of Spiro Agnew as Richard Nixon's Vice President. Gerald Ford was subsequently nominated by President Nixon and confirmed by Congress. The second occurred 10 months later when Nixon resigned following the Watergate scandal and Ford assumed the Presidency. The resulting Vice Presidential vacancy was filled by Nelson Rockefeller. Ford and Rockefeller are the only two people to have served as Vice President without having been elected to the office, and Ford remains the only person to have served as both Vice President and President without being elected to either office. The Twenty-Fifth Amendment also made provisions for a replacement in the event that the Vice President died in office, resigned, or succeeded to the presidency. The original Constitution had no provision for selecting such a replacement, so the office of Vice President would remain vacant until the beginning of the next Presidential and Vice Presidential terms. This issue had arisen most recently with the John F. Kennedy assassination from November 22, 1963, until January 20, 1965, and was rectified by Section 2 of the Twenty-Fifth Amendment.
Find a timeline of Vice Presidents at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vice_President_of_the_United_States
Presidential succession refers to the procedure for replacing the president (or vice president) in the event of death or some other form of removal. The Constitution (text) (Article II, Section 1, Clause 6) stipulates that the Vice President is to replace the President, but grants to Congress the power to determine further succession. A Presidential Succession Act of 1792 provided that after the Vice president, the next officials in line would be the President Pro Tempore (presiding officer) of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives. The contest for dominance was complicated by the emergence of a newly empowered force in the 1880s — the American businessman. In this age, the Rockefellers and Carnegies were regarded by many as the elite. They were seen as superior to mere politicians who supped at the public trough. This reverence for executives played a part in the passage of the Presidential Succession Act of 1886, which dropped the politicians (President Pro tempore and Speaker) from the line of succession and installed the Cabinet secretaries in the order in which their departments were created. http://www.u-s-history.com/pages/h723.html
Following World War II , a new Presidential Succession Act of 1947 was passed, which placed the Speaker of the House and the President Pro Tempore of the Senate behind the Vice President. The line of succession then extended to the executive department heads in the order in which their agencies were created. No constitutional (narrative) provision existed for filling a vice presidential vacancy until the ratification of the 25th Amendment in 1967. http://www.u-s-history.com/pages/h745.html
U.S. Creates Largest Protected Area in the World, 3X Larger Than California by Brian Clark Howard
What has happened is extraordinary. It is history making. There is a lot of reason we should be celebrating right now," said Elliott Norse, founder and chief scientist of the Seattle-based Marine Conservation Institute. Enric Sala, an ocean scientist and National Geographic Explorer-in-Residence, called the newly expanded monument "a great example of marine protection." During the past several years, Sala and National Geographic's Pristine Seas project—which aims to explore, survey, and protect several of the last wild places in the world's oceans—have been key players in expeditions to the region that helped to put a spotlight on its biodiversity. Sala also met with White House officials to make the scientific case for expanding the Pacific Remote Islands monument. (The monument's Kingman Reef was featured in the July 2008 issue of National Geographic magazine.) In June, when he first announced his intent to expand the monument, Obama said, "I'm using my authority as president to protect some of our nation's most pristine marine monuments, just like we do on land." The June announcement was followed by a public comment period and further analysis by the White House, officials said. Thousands of people submitted comments, with many conservation groups and scientists offering their support. Some fishing and cannery groups, as well as a few members of the U.S. Congress opposed the expansion, citing the potential a loss of commercial fishing grounds. (See "Conservationists Spar With Fishermen Over World's Largest Marine Monument.") Norse said that the newly protected areas will safeguard endangered seabirds and other key species, including five endangered sea turtle species (such as loggerheads and leatherbacks), sooty terns and other terns, silky sharks and oceanic whitetip sharks, beaked whales, manta rays, red-tailed tropic birds, and deep-sea corals. Obama's Democratic administration is building on a national monument that was first created by his predecessor, Republican President George W. Bush, suggesting that "ocean protection may be one of the last bipartisan issues" in the politically divided United States, says David Helvarg, the author of several books on the ocean and the founder of the advocacy group Blue Frontier Campaign. Democratic and Republican presidents going all the way back to Teddy Roosevelt, a Republican who served from 1901 to 1909, have used the 1906 Antiquities Act to designate national monuments. The law requires simply that an area be unique and considered worthy of protection for future generations. This is the 12th time Obama has used his authority under the Antiquities Act to protect environmental areas. The area being protected by the administration will expand the protected areas from 50 miles offshore to 200 miles offshore around three areas—Wake Island, Johnston Atoll, and Jarvis Island—the maximum reach of the United States’ exclusive economic zone. "Although 71 percent of our planet is covered with saltwater, we have protected much more of the land than the ocean," Helvarg said.
Read more and see pictures at http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2014/09/140924-pacific-remote-islands-marine-monument-expansion-conservation/
http://librariansmuse.blogspot.com Issue 1197 September 29, 2014 On this date in 1789, the 1st United States Congress adjourned. On this date in 1951, the first live sporting event seen coast-to-coast in the United States, a college football game between Duke and the University of Pittsburgh, was televised on NBC.