Wednesday, July 19, 2017

Anyone learning Hungarian will be keen to tell you that it’s one of the most challenging languages to take up.  While opinion varies, more or less everyone agrees it’s up there in the top 10 thanks to its 26 cases and numerous complex rules.  Its proper name is “Magyar”, which can also be used to refer to the Hungarian people.  Hungarian comes from the Ularic region of Asia and belongs to the Finno-Ugric language group, meaning its closest relatives are actually Finnish and Estonian.  The five vowels of the English language pale in comparison to Hungarian’s total of 14.  As well as the basic “a, e, i, o, u” vowels, the Hungarian language also includes a further 9 variations on these:  á, é, í, ó, ö, ő, ú, ü, ű.  The pronunciation of each is slightly different and can change the meaning of a word completely.  The word order is flexible, but it’s not totally free--there are still rules about how words need to be arranged.  This depends on the emphasis of the sentence, and the sense conveyed.  Hungarian contains a whopping 68% of its etymons, or original words.  Compare this with the four percent retained by the English language, or the five percent kept by Hebrew, and the scale is even more impressive.  When introducing yourself in Hungary, your given name is always stated after your surname.  For example, Tamás Nagy would be introduced as Nagy Tamás.  Not only does the Hungarian alphabet feature 44 letters in total, but some of those counted as letters are in fact made up of two or even three.  For example, ‘dzs’, a letter in the Hungarian alphabet pronounced as ‘j’, or ‘sz’ which equates to ‘s’.

Callus is a noun meaning a localized thickening of the skin, and a verb meaning to form a localized thickening of the skin.  Callused means having many calluses.  Callous is closely related to callus, but it’s figurative—that is, it doesn’t describe actual skin—and it is never a noun.  As an adjective, it means toughened or unfeeling.  As a verb, it means to make or become callous

Castle Clinton, located in Battery Park, Manhattan, is a window into the city's history and a prime venue for tours and performances, as well as the ticketing gateway to the Statue of Liberty and Ellis Island.  Built in 1811, after the storm of revolution had passed, it was one of the earliest military undertakings of the new nation anticipating the possibility of further conflict with Britain, which came to pass in the War of 1812.  Although it never saw combat, the fort provided a strategic military presence at the northern edge of New York Harbor, which had first been fortified by the Dutch and then English rulers of the colonial city.  In fact a remnant of that original battery wall from which Battery Park derives its name is on display inside the fort.  Castle Clinton's military use was short-lived as new defenses positioned further out in the harbor were created.  The Castle was turned over to the city in 1824 and a complete renovation transformed the structure into Castle Garden.  For 32 years the lavish Castle Clinton served as one of America's great entertainment centers, hosting such notable events as the triumphal return of the Marquis de Lafayette to America in 1824 and the debut of famed opera diva Jenny Lind in 1850.  In 1855, Castle Clinton's role changed again when it became the first official immigrant reception station operated by the State of New York.  Almost 8 million immigrants were processed here.  In 1890, when the federal government took charge of the immigration process, it was replaced by a new facility on Ellis Island.  In 1896, the building re-opened as the experimental New York Aquarium, displaying species from local waters and later, more exotic creatures from further afield.  When the aquarium closed in 1941, the fish were moved to the Bronx Zoo and then eventually to the new aquarium on Coney Island.  In 1946, Castle Clinton National Monument was authorized and the National Park Service assumed stewardship of the site.  Earlier modifications were removed and the appearance of the site has been restored to that of the original fort, complete with replica cannons.

The “math” that’s part of “aftermath” is an entirely different noun from the one in “mathematics.”  In fact, they came into English from two different routes—one from old Germanic sources and the other from Latin.  “Aftermath” got its start as an agricultural term associated with mowing.  You might say its literal meaning is “after-mowing.”  The word entered the language in the 15th century as a compound of the prefix “after-” plus the noun “math,” which once meant a mowing or the portion of a crop that’s been mowed.

Polymath is a synonym of polyhistor.  As nouns the difference between polymath and polyhistor is that polymath is a person with extraordinarily broad and comprehensive knowledge while polyhistor is someone gifted or learned in multiple disciplines.

The du Pont Estates:  More than Mansions by Kurt Jacobson   The Brandywine River flows gently under sweeping willow boughs whispering tales of American history on its way to the Chesapeake Bay.  Along its banks are stories of peace and contentment, as well as war and conquest, and it was here in 1802 that Eleuthère Irénée (E.I.) du Pont started the company that still bears his name today.  Arguably the most famous family to have lived and worked the Brandywine Valley, the du Ponts built several magnificent estates in the Wilmington area that are open to the public.  Three of the grandest are Longwood, Winterthur, and Nemours.  When the buds are bursting and the birds are singing, there’s no better place to be than Longwood Gardens, home of E.I. du Pont’s great-grandson Pierre S. du Pont, and just a 25-minute drive from Wilmington.  From 1700 to 1906, the land was owned by the Peirce family, who in 1730 built the brick farmhouse that stands today.  Later generations planted an arboretum, and by the mid-1800s Peirce’s Park was nationally renowned for its collection of trees.  Be sure to include a tour of the original house built by Joshua Peirce, and then revel in the magic of the gardens and fountains.  Pierre’s vision for Longwood is evident at every turn:  the Conservatory, carillon, topiary garden, Italian Water Garden, a massive pipe organ, and especially the Flower Garden Walk, which explodes in mid-April with more than 240,000 tulip bulbs in bloom.  Worth putting on the calendar for summer 2017 is the reopening of the spectacular Main Fountain Garden after a 3-year $90 million restoration.  From Longwood, it’s a short drive (less than 10 miles) to the biggest du Pont mansion, Winterthur.  The house was built in 1839 by the daughter of E.I. du Pont, but it was Henry Francis du Pont who had the vision and creativity to create the Winterthur we see today.  Henry, who was born at Winterthur, took responsibility for managing the estate in 1914 and set the example for living a farm-to-table lifestyle a century before it would become a common phrase.  Under Henry’s guidance, Winterthur thrived as a working farm with two main objectives:  to supply Winterthur’s table and the community with fresh farm goods, and to develop the herd of prize-winning Holstein- Friesian dairy cattle. This was an era of grow-your-own, and Henry was an avid believer. He was so fond of Winterthur’s farm goods, and he knew how they had been grown or raised, that he had them shipped by train when he was at his other residences.  Henry also had a keen eye for furniture and art.  Between 1929 and 1931, he expanded the mansion into one of the grandest homes in America, in part to house this unparalleled collection of American decorative arts and furniture, and over the next two decades continued to expand and improve the mansion and the grounds.  Henry moved to the site of an 1837 cottage across from the main house, replacing it with a fifty room English style residence when Winterthur opened to the public in 1951, and lived there until his death in 1969.  A 45-minute guided tour of the mansion is recommended to see many of the approximately 90,000 objects in Henry’s collection, including exquisite ceramics, glass, furniture, metalwork, paintings, and prints.  Be sure to stop by the library if time allows, and enjoy an outdoor walk to see some of the most beautiful azaleas found anywhere.  Make time for Nemours Estate, just a fifteen-minute drive from Winterthur.  Nemours, which opens each year in May, was built by Alfred Irénée du Pont in 1909 and is named after the family’s ancestral home in France.  A great-grandson of E.I. du Pont’s, Alfred was a shrewd businessman who convinced his cousins Pierre and Coleman to join him in buying the company in 1902 rather than see it sold to outsiders.  He was also the last member of his family to serve an apprenticeship in the powder yards, a course of training which prepared him to make numerous innovations in gunpowder production that led to a more efficient and much safer working environment.  The estate opened to the public in 1977.  Nemours has some of the best examples of French-inspired formal gardens anywhere in North America and is spectacular in the early season.  Plan on spending 10-20 minutes in the Visitor Center to become oriented, then shuttle over to tour Nemours Mansion.  Be sure to take in the view from the second-floor balcony overlooking the formal gardens, part of nearly 200 acres of fantasy land.  Be sure to leave time to explore the 15+ acres of gardens and grounds, where a spring meander through this beautiful landscape is priceless.  French sculptor Prosper Lecourtier’s massive elk sculptures mark the start of the Long Walk, and then it’s an expansive vista to the fountains and reflecting pool where, when the 157-jet fountain is resting, the entire Long Walk is reflected.  Completing the scene are the Four Seasons sculptures, the Temple of Love, and the 23-carat gold leaf statue Achievement, which anchors the Nemours gardens.  Issue 1740  July 19, 2017, 200th day of the year  On this date in 1759, Marianna Auenbrugger, Austrian pianist and composer, was born.  On this date in 1848, a two-day Women's Rights Convention opened in Seneca Falls, New York.

Tuesday, July 18, 2017

1 baguette
1 pound fresh mozzarella
1 bunch basil
2 pounds heirloom tomatoes
olive oil (to drizzle)
red wine vinegar (to drizzle)
freshly ground pepper (to taste)
coarse salt (to taste)
Slice the baguette lengthwise.  Slice the heirloom tomatoes and the mozzarella into 1/2-inch-thick pieces.  Drizzle the baguette with olive oil and red wine vinegar.  Layer the tomatoes and mozzarella on the bread, and season with salt and freshly ground pepper.  Garnish with basil leaves and sandwich the slices of bread together.  Cut the baguette into 4 sandwiches and serve immediately.

The Hudson River is a 315-mile (507 km) river that flows from north to south primarily through eastern New York.  The river originates in the Adirondack Mountains of Upstate New York, flows through the Hudson Valley, and eventually drains into the Atlantic Ocean, between New York City and Jersey City.  The river serves as a political boundary between the states of New Jersey and New York, and further north  between New York counties.  The lower half of the river is a tidal estuary occupying the Hudson Fjord, which formed during the most recent period of North American glaciation, estimated at 26,000 to 13,300 years ago.  Tidal waters influence the Hudson's flow from as far north as Troy.  The river is named after Henry Hudson, an Englishman sailing for the Dutch East India Company, who explored it in 1609, and after whom Canada's Hudson Bay is also named.  It had previously been observed by Italian explorer Giovanni da Verrazzano sailing for King Francis I of France in 1524, as he became the first European known to have entered the Upper New York Bay, but he considered the river to be an estuary.  The Dutch called the river the North River--with the Delaware River called the South River--and it formed the spine of the Dutch colony of New NetherlandThe source of the Hudson River is Lake Tear of the Clouds in the Adirondack Park at an altitude of 4,322 feet (1,317 m).  The river is not cartographically called the Hudson River until miles downstream.  The river is named Feldspar Brook until its confluence with Calamity Brook, and then is named Calamity Brook until the river reaches Indian Pass Brook, flowing south from the outlet of Henderson Lake.  From that point on, the stream is cartographically known as the Hudson River.  The Hudson is sometimes called, in geological terms, a drowned river.  The rising sea levels after the retreat of the Wisconsin glaciation, the most recent ice age, have resulted in a marine incursion that drowned the coastal plain and brought salt water well above the mouth of the river.  The former riverbed is clearly delineated beneath the waters of the Atlantic Ocean, extending to the edge of the continental shelf.  The Narrows were most likely formed about 6,000 years ago at the end of the last ice age.  Previously, Staten Island and Long Island were connected, preventing the Hudson River from terminating via The Narrows.  At that time, the Hudson River emptied into the Atlantic Ocean through a more westerly course through parts of present-day northern New Jersey, along the eastern side of the Watchung Mountains to Bound Brook, New Jersey and then on into the Atlantic Ocean via Raritan Bay.  A buildup of water in the Upper New York Bay eventually allowed the Hudson River to break through previous land mass that was connecting Staten Island and Brooklyn to form The Narrows as it exists today.  This allowed the Hudson River to find a shorter route to the Atlantic Ocean via its present course between New Jersey and New York City.  The river was called Ca-ho-ha-ta-te-a ("the river") by the Iroquois, and it was known as Muh-he-kun-ne-tuk ("river that flows two ways") by the Mohican tribe who formerly inhabited both banks of the lower portion of the river.  Read more and see pictures at

Bartram's Garden is the oldest surviving botanic garden in North America.  Located on the west bank of the Schuylkill River, it covers 46 acres (19 ha) and includes an historic botanical garden and arboretum (8 acres (3.2 ha), established circa 1728).  The garden is near the intersection of 54th Street and Lindbergh Boulevard, in Philadelphia.  It was designated a National Historic Landmark in 1960.  Bartram's Garden is the oldest surviving botanic garden in the United States.  John Bartram (1699–1777), the well-known early American botanist, explorer, and plant collector, founded the garden in September 1728 when he purchased a 102-acre (0.41 km2) farm in Kingsessing Township, Philadelphia County. John Bartram's garden began as a personal landscape.  With his lifelong devotion to plants, it grew to become a systematic collection as he devoted more time to exploration and the discovery of new North American species and examples.  Although not the first botanic collection in North America, by the middle of the eighteenth century Bartram's Garden contained the most varied collection of North American plants in the world.  John Bartram was at the center of a lucrative business centered on the transatlantic transfer of plants.  Read more and see pictures at
Elfreth's Alley, named for blacksmith and property-owner Jeremiah Elfreth, was home to the 18th-century artisans and trades-people who were the backbone of colonial Philadelphia.  While a modern city has sprung up around it, the alley preserves three centuries of evolution through its old-fashioned flower boxes, shutters, Flemish bond brickwork and other architectural details.  Two adjacent houses, built in 1755, are now a museum and are open to the public.  Tiny by modern standards, the two homes were considered average size in their day.  During the 19th century, eight families (27 people) shared the two homes, a situation not uncommon for the era.

Longwood Gardens is an American botanical garden.  It consists of over 1,077 acres (436 hectares; 4.36 km²) of gardenswoodlands, and meadows in Kennett Square, Pennsylvania in the Brandywine Creek Valley   "I have recently experienced what I would formerly have diagnosed as an attack of insanity; that is, I have purchased a small farm,” Pierre du Pont wrote to a friend soon after purchasing the Peirce family farm in 1906.  However, he added, “I expect to have a good deal of enjoyment in restoring its former condition and making it a place where I can entertain my friends.”  An understatement if there ever was one.  It didn’t take Pierre long before he started making his mark on what he called Longwood.  The name came from the nearby Longwood Meeting House, which in turn was named for a neighboring Longwood Farm.  “Longwood” probably derives from a nearby stretch of forest known locally as The Long Woods.  

Photographic views of New York City, 1870's-1970's from the collections of the New York Public Library  The New York City photograph collection began in the 1920s, not long after the opening of the new central library at Fifth Avenue and 42nd Street.  Historical photographs complemented contemporary images, as the collection continued to grow systematically through commissioned photographs, purchases, and gifts into the early 1970s.  Organization is by borough, and then by street address; a section of topical subjects such as Islands, Occupations, Parades, Social Conditions, Transportation augments the geographical portions of the holding.  

Bob Wolff, along with Curt Gowdy the only sports announcer that is a member of both the baseball and basketballs halls of fame, died July 15, 2017 in South Nyack, NY at age 96.  In a career that began in 1939, Wolff covered every major sporting event from World Series to Super Bowls to NBC and NHL championship series and was an institution in New York, where he broadcast for the Yankees, Knicks and Rangers.

Charles W. Bachman, an engineer who created software to harness business data in the early 1960s, laying a technical foundation for modern digital commerce, died July 13, 2017 at his home in Lexington, Mass.  He was 92.  Mr. Bachman was a pioneer in the field of database management software.  Issue 1739  July 18, 2017  On this date in 1927, Ty Cobb hit safely for the 4,000th time in his career during a game between the Philadelphia Athletics (his new team) and the Detroit Tigers (his old one) at Navin Field.  (The Tigers won, 5-3.)  On this date in 1932, the United States and Canada signed a treaty to develop the St. Lawrence Seaway.

Thought For Today  If you want to make peace with your enemy, you have to work with your enemy. Then he becomes your partner. - Nelson Mandela, activist, South African president, Nobel laureate (18 Jul 1918-2013)

Monday, July 17, 2017

The Quadrangle is the common name for a cluster of museums and cultural institutions in Metro Center, Springfield, Massachusetts, on Chestnut Street between State and Edwards Streets.  On the corner of Chestnut and State Streets, Merrick Park is distinguished by sculptor Augustus Saint-Gaudens "The Puritan," a statue depicting one of Springfield's settlers, Deacon Samuel Chapin. Springfield Central Library (constructed in 1913, was paid for by Andrew Carnegie. ) and Christ Church Cathedral are adjacent to the park.  Find descriptions of five museums at,_Massachusetts)  You will be able to park free in one location for all museums, and one ticket gives admission to all museums.  The newest museum, The Amazing World of Dr. Seuss Museum, opened in June 2017.  See also

A. Roy Knabenshue (1876-1960) of Toledo, Ohio had a great curiosity about aerial navigation and made balloon flights in his early teens.  In 1900 Thomas Scott Baldwin, an early balloonist and parachutist, began experimenting with motor powered balloons.  These experiments resulted in the construction of the first successful dirigible in America, the California Arrow, powered by an engine that Glenn H. Curtiss built.  It made its first successful flight on August 3rd, 1904 at Oakland, California.  Later that year Knabenshue flew the California Arrow at the Louisiana Purchase Exposition of St. Louis, competing against all domestic and European dirigibles, and won the Grand Prize for his performance.  In January 1905, Knabenshue raced the California Arrow against an automobile between Los Angeles and Pasadena, California and won handily.  Knabenshue returned to Toledo and began to build dirigibles of his own design.  In July 1905 Knabenshue flew his airship Number One from the Lucas County Fairgrounds to the roof of a building in downtown Toledo and returned.  Knabenshue made many successful airship flights in 1905 at state fairs and also engaged in promoting public exhibitions.  In August 1905 he flew his 69 foot long Toledo II airship at Central Park in New York City, stopping all business and street traffic.  Knabenshue’s third dirigible was completed and flown in exhibitions at Hartford, Connecticut, Providence, Rhode Island, Worcester, Massachusetts and London, Ontario in 1907.  In late 1907 Knabenshue began to build a three-man airship designed to carry passengers as well as for exhibition work.  In May 1908 Roy made an ascent at Toledo in this airship with two others aboard.  In January 1910 Knabenshue participated in the First International Air Meet at Dominques Field, Los Angeles, racing his dirigible against others.  In 1913 he built the first passenger dirigible in America calling it White City.  Read more and see pictures at

as scarce as hen's teeth  There isn't much information on the roots of this phrase, but scholars have been able to dig up a few tidbits.  Meaning 'very rare,' this phrase is thought to be an Americanism dating back to the colonial period (c. early 1600s.)  While researchers believe it has been in use since then, its first recording doesn't appear until 1862.  The imagery behind this phrase relates to something we probably don't think about too often: birds don't have teeth.  There are some birds with serrated beaks leftover from their prehistoric ancestors, but none have teeth like mammals or some reptiles.  If you thought hen's teeth were the rarest thing in nature, think again:  researchers from Britain and the US have succeeded in growing teeth in a chicken.  Far from being rarer than students who turn up at 9a.m. lectures or lecturers who like giving them, a hen with teeth does occur naturally, scientists based at the universities of Manchester and Wisconsin have found.  And by studying that mutant chicken--which is too weak to hatch, explaining its rarity--the team has been able to stimulate "natural" tooth growth in chickens.  The mutant chicken harks back to toothier days:  the ancestors of today's birds lost their teeth about 80 million years ago, but not the ability to grow them.  Katherine Demopoulus

PARAPHRASES from The Mackinac Incident, a thriller by Len McDougall  Michigan's infamous horseflies in the Upper Peninsula—said to require killing with a knife or a gun—are more voracious than those in the Amazon rain forest.  *  not the sedate Yooper town it was supposed to be  *  The five-mile span of the Mackinack Bridge, connecting Michigan's Upper and Lower Peninsulas, is the busiest stretch of Interstate 75 in the U.S.--especially on Labor Day  *  In the UP, there could be snow every month except July.  *  There are  more firearms than residents in the UP. 

Len McDougall is a professional outdoorsman with five decades of often hard experience that include being abandoned by search-and-rescue authorities as dead twice in the north woods.  Len is an internationally recognized survival instructor/tracker, and author of numerous books, including The Ultimate SHTF Survival Handbook, Modern Lumberjacking, Tracking and Reading Sign, The Log Cabin:  An Adventure, Practical Outdoor Survival, Practical Outdoor Projects, The Complete Tracker, The Outdoors Almanac, The Snowshoe Handbook, The Field & Stream Wilderness Survival Handbook Made for the Outdoors, and others.  He teaches survival, snowshoeing, kayaking, dogsledding, and tracking classes, and works as a wilderness guide.  Len's interest in all things out-of-doors began early.  Having grown up with youngsters of the Odawa and Ojibwa tribes in Northern Michigan, the Elders considered him more Nish-na-bee (Indian) than Chee-mook-a-mon (white), and accepted the Scots-Irish kid as one of their own.  With that status, he received the teachings of the Grandfathers, who are obligated by culture to pass what they know to the next generation.  With no written language, the tribes had already lost much, but what remained was enough to strike young Len's heart with a passion that would subsequently consume his life.  Find list of his published works at

MICHIGAN UP NORTH  Whether it is spelled Mackinaw as in Mackinaw City or Mackinac as in Mackinac Island, they are pronounced the same way:  Mack-i-naw.  Why?  The area was named Michilimackinac by the Native Americans and when the French built a fort here in 1715, they recorded the name with a "c" on the end as a French word with an "aw" sound would be pronounced.  The word became shortened to Mackinac.  The fort was moved on the winter ice to the island across the straits which became known as Mackinac Island.  Edgar Conkling was the founder of the city in 1857 and he changed the name to Mackinaw to reflect how the word actually sounds.

An appositive is a noun or noun phrase that renames another noun right beside it.  The appositive can be a short or long combination of words.  Look at these appositive examples, which rename insect:
The insect, a cockroach, is crawling across the kitchen table.  The insect, a large, hairy-legged cockroach that has spied my bowl of oatmeal, is crawling across the kitchen table.  Read more at

10 space objects to see daytime by Larry Sessions   Observing space objects in the daytime has its limitations and difficulties, but, as with all skywatching, it also has its rewards.  So here is a list of 10 in increasing order of difficulty:  your top 10 space objects to see in daylight.  The sun, The moon, The planet Venus, Earth-orbiting satellites, The planet Jupiter, The planet Mars, Stars during eclipses, Daytime comets, Daytime meteors, and Daytime supernovae.

By historical convention, "madding crowd" is the idiom, dating from the late 16th century.  Unlike "maddening," which describes the effect on the observer, "madding" (= frenzied) describes the crowd itself.  Thomas Gray's "Elegy in a Country Churchyard" (1749) and Thomas Hardy's novel Far From the Madding Crowd (1874) helped establish this idiom, especially Gray's "far from the madding crowd's ignoble strife."  Brooks Clark  Issue 1738  July 17, 2017  On this date in 1717, King George I of Great Britain sailed down the River Thames with a barge of 50 musicians, where George Frideric Handel's Water Music was premiered.  On this date in 1955, Disneyland was dedicated and opened by Walt Disney in Anaheim, California.

Friday, July 14, 2017

Neo-Impressionism is a term coined by French art critic Félix Fénéon in 1886 to describe an art movement founded by Georges Seurat.  Seurat’s greatest masterpiece, A Sunday Afternoon on the Island of La Grande Jatte, marked the beginning of this movement when it first made its appearance at an exhibition of the Société des Artistes Indépendants (Salon des Indépendants) in Paris.  Around this time, the peak of France’s modern era emerged and many painters were in search of new methods.  Followers of Neo-Impressionism, in particular, were drawn to modern urban scenes as well as landscapes and seashores.  Science-based interpretation of lines and colors influenced Neo-Impressionists' characterization of their own contemporary art. The Pointillist and Divisionist techniques are often mentioned in this context, because it was the dominant technique in the beginning of the Neo-impressionist movement.  See beautiful pictures and a list of Neo-Impressionists at

Any more and anymore have related meanings, but they’re not interchangeable.  Whether you make anymore one word or two depends on how you’re using it.  Any more refers to quantities  (Would you like any more tea?).  Anymore is an adverb that refers to time  (I don’t like tea anymore.).

"Speculation about the past is inefficient.  And therefore irrelevant to achieving your goal."  "Perfect information means that all of a player's past moves—his strategies—are accessible to his opponent."  "I enjoy those games that re-create famous battles, which are almost exclusively of American design.  The Europeans prefer economic and socially productive games, the Asians abstract.  But Americans love their combat."  "In game theory your opponent's personality is irrelevant.  There's even a type of game in which it's understood you can substitute any human being for the other player."  "For all their cleverness and high-definition graphics, computer games can't match the allure of their elegant, three-dimensional forebears."  Edge, a novel by Jeffery Deaver  Acknowledgments:  Strategies on game theory and ideas about rational irrationality come largely from writer John Cassidy and his marvelous (and sobering) book, How Markets Fail.

Jeffery Deaver (born May 6, 1950) is an American mystery/crime writer.  He has a bachelor of journalism degree from the University of Missouri and a law degree from Fordham University and originally started working as a journalist.  He later practiced law before embarking on a successful career as a best-selling novelist.  He has been awarded the Steel Dagger and Short Story Dagger from the British Crime Writers' Association and the Nero Wolfe Award, and he is a three-time recipient of the Ellery Queen Reader's Award for Best Short Story of the Year and a winner of the British Thumping Good Read Award.  Deaver was born outside Chicago in Glen Ellyn, Illinois, and grew up in a creative family. His mother was an artist, and his father an advertising writer.  His sister Julie Reece Deaver is an author of young adult novels.  Deaver was a journalist, folksinger, and attorney.  He lives alone and does a great deal of cooking in all cuisines.  The book that inspired him to write was From Russia With Love, a James Bond novel by Ian Fleming.  Deaver edited The Best American Mystery Stories 2009.  Three of Deaver's novels have been produced into films:  A Maiden's Grave made for TV as film Dead Silence 1997, The Bone Collector released 1999, and The Devil's Teardrop made for TV 2010.  Deaver also created the characters and—in a collaboration with 14 other noted writers—wrote the 17-part serial thriller The Chopin Manuscript narrated by Alfred Molina that was broadcast on from September 25 to November 13, 2007.  It is now also available in print.  See bibliography at

Game theory is "the study of mathematical models of conflict and cooperation between intelligent rational decision-makers."  Game theory is mainly used in economics, political science, and psychology, as well as logic, computer science and biology.  Originally, it addressed zero-sum games, in which one person's gains result in losses for the other participants.  Today, game theory applies to a wide range of behavioral relations, and is now an umbrella term for the science of logical decision making in humans, animals, and computers.  Modern game theory began with the idea regarding the existence of mixed-strategy equilibria in two-person zero-sum games and its proof by John von Neumann.  Von Neumann's original proof used the Brouwer fixed-point theorem on continuous mappings into compact convex sets, which became a standard method in game theory and mathematical economics.  His paper was followed by the 1944 book Theory of Games and Economic Behavior, co-written with Oskar Morgenstern, which considered cooperative games of several players.  The second edition of this book provided an axiomatic theory of expected utility, which allowed mathematical statisticians and economists to treat decision-making under uncertainty.  This theory was developed extensively in the 1950s by many scholars.  Game theory was later explicitly applied to biology in the 1970s, although similar developments go back at least as far as the 1930s.  Game theory has been widely recognized as an important tool in many fields.  With the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences going to game theorist Jean Tirole in 2014, eleven game-theorists have now won the economics Nobel Prize.  John Maynard Smith was awarded the Crafoord Prize for his application of game theory to biology.  Based on the book by Sylvia Nasar, the life story of game theorist and mathematician John Nash was turned into the biopic A Beautiful Mind starring Russell Crowe.  "Games theory" and "theory of games" are mentioned in the military science fiction novel Starship Troopers by Robert A. Heinlein.  In the 1997 film of the same name, the character Carl Jenkins refers to his assignment to military intelligence as to "games and theory."

a as a first letter  variant of ab- before p and v:  aperient; avert.  variant of ad- 
(1)  before sc, sp, st (ascend) and (2)  in words of French derivation (often with the sense of increase, addition)  variant of an-
before a consonant, meaning “not,” “without”:  amoral; atonal; achromatic. 
prefix  not; without; opposite to:  atonal, asocial; on; in; towards: afoot, abed, aground, aback
used before a present participle  come a-running, go a-hunting; in the condition or state of:  afloat, alive, asleep 
ANONYMOUS:  from Late Latin anonymus, from Greek anonymos "without a name,"

Textise is an Internet tool that removes everything from a web page except for its text.  You stay in Textise’s world until you click the “Back To Original Page” link.  You can’t use Textise to visit sites that require you to log in, such as Facebook.  You can’t use Textise to buy stuff from e-commerce sites, such as Amazon (but you can browse their stores).  It’s free to use Textise to convert web sites into text from the Textise home page or by using the Textise bookmarklet or Firefox add-on.  Issue 1737  July 14, 2017  On this date in 1789, citizens of Paris stormed the Bastille.  On this date in 1874, a fire in Chicago burned down 47 acres of the city, destroying 812 buildings, killing 20, and resulting in the fire insurance industry demanding municipal reforms from Chicago's city council.  Word of the Day  galette  noun   A type of flatround cake from FranceShort for Breton galette:  a crêpe or pancake made with buckwheat flour, and often with a savoury filling, originally from Upper Brittany in France.