Latin phrases still used today: carpe diem, de facto, per se, ad hoc, vice versa, status quo, quid pro quo, pro bono, and bona fide. Latin words still used today: alibi, bonus, ergo, re, semi, and verbatim.
Etymologically, the "synergy" term was first used around 1600, deriving from the Greek word “synergos”, which means “to work together” or “to cooperate”. If during this period the synergy concept was mainly used in the theological field (describing “the cooperation of human effort with divine will”), in the 19th and 20th centuries, "synergy" was promoted in physics and biochemistry, being implemented in the study of the open economic systems only in the 1960 and 1970s. If used in a business application, synergy means that teamwork will produce an overall better result than if each person within the group were working toward the same goal individually. However, the concept of group cohesion needs to be considered. Group cohesion is that property that is inferred from the number and strength of mutual positive attitudes among members of the group. As the group becomes more cohesive, its functioning is affected in a number of ways. First, the interactions and communication between members increase. Common goals, interests and small size all contribute to this. In addition, group member satisfaction increases as the group provides friendship and support against outside threats. There are negative aspects of group cohesion that have an effect on group decision-making and hence on group effectiveness. There are two issues arising. The risky shift phenomenon is the tendency of a group to make decisions that are riskier than those that the group would have recommended individually. Group Polarisation is when individuals in a group begin by taking a moderate stance on an issue regarding a common value and, after having discussed it, end up taking a more extreme stance. A second, potential negative consequence of group cohesion is group think. Group think is a mode of thinking that people engage in when they are deeply involved in cohesive group, when the members' striving for unanimity overrides their motivation to appraise realistically the alternative courses of action. The term synergy was refined by R. Buckminster Fuller, who analyzed some of its implications more fully and coined the term Synergetics. Read more at https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Synergy
The name Occitan comes from lenga d'òc ("language of òc"), òc being the Occitan word for yes. While the term would have been in use orally for some time after the decline of Latin, as far as historical records show, the Italian medieval poet Dante was the first to have recorded the term lingua d'oc in writing. In his De vulgari eloquentia, he wrote in Latin, "nam alii oc, alii si, alii vero dicunt oil" ("for some say òc, others sì, yet others say oïl"), thereby highlighting three major Romance literary languages that were well known in Italy, based on each language's word for "yes", the òc language (Occitan), the oïl language (French), and the sì language (Sicilian and Italian). This was not, of course, the only defining characteristic of each group. The long-term survival of Occitan is in grave doubt. According to the UNESCO Red Book of Endangered Languages, four of the six major dialects of Occitan (Provençal, Auvergnat, Limousin and Languedocien) are considered severely endangered, whereas the remaining two (Gascon and Vivaro-Alpine) are considered definitely endangered. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Occitan_language See also Occitan Language at http://www.orbilat.com/Languages/Occitan/Occitan.html
Orient noun the countries of Asia, especially East Asia. (formerly) the countries to the E of the Mediterranean. Jewelry: the iridescence of a pearl. the east; the eastern region of the heavens or the world. verb: to familiarize (a person) with new surroundings or circumstances or
to place in any definite position with reference to the points of the compass or other locations or
to direct or position toward a particular object. http://www.dictionary.com/browse/orient?s=t
interesting word choices from The Last Minute, Sam Capra series #2, a novel by Jeff Abbott "earplugged into oblivion" "electronic breadcrumbs" "the kind of kid whose fingertips felt lonely without a keyboard"
Jeff Abbott (born 1963) is a U.S. suspense novelist. He has degrees in History and English from Rice University. He lives in Austin, Texas. His early novels were traditional detective fiction, but in recent years he has turned to writing thriller fiction. A theme of his work is the idea of ordinary people caught up in extraordinary danger and fighting to return to their normal lives. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jeff_Abbott
RECOMMENDED COFFEE TABLE BOOKS Encyclopedia of Amazing Places, Discover Famous Places of the World by Robert Hamilton Paragon Press, 2009. Plantation Homes of the James River by Bruce Roberts The University of North Carolina Press, 1990. The Great Book of Trains by Brian Hollingsworth and Arthur F. Cook Salamander Books Ltd, 1987.
The Susan Constant, Godspeed and Discovery set sail from London on December 20, 1606, bound for Virginia. The ships carried 105 passengers and 39 crew members on the four-month transatlantic voyage. The expedition was sponsored by the Virginia Company of London, a business venture that had been organized to form a colony in Virginia. The fleet reached the Virginia coast in late April and, after two weeks of inland waterway exploration, arrived at the selected settlement site on May 13, 1607. http://www.historyisfun.org/jamestown-settlement/jamestown-ships/ The leaders of the expedition chose a peninsula connected to the north bank of the river by a sandy isthmus. Having already named the river in honor of King James I of England, who had authorized the expedition, the leaders named the site Jamestown. Plantation Homes of the James River
Long ago some unsung hero must have put strips of wood on the ground to allow his horse to pull a heavier load. Then came "plateways" using cast-iron flanged plates; then came wrought-iron rails, and finally steel rails. The first steam locomotive, built in Wales in 1804, is attributed to Richard Trevithick. The first use of steam on a public railway was George and Robert Stephenson's Locomotion in 1825. Public meant anyone could run a train by paying an appropriate toll. The first inter-city rail began in 1830 between Liverpool and Manchester. The first serious challenge to steam locomotion came in early Victorian times from the atmospheric system. The first electric locomotive in public service began in 1879. The Great Book of Trains See also http://rediscoverstockton.co.uk/heritage/the-stockton-railway-locomotion-sculpture/
Surviving members of Lynyrd Skynyrd won a permanent injunction blocking the production and distribution of a movie depicting the 1977 plane crash that killed the rock band’s lead singer, Ronnie Van Zant. In a decision made public on August 28, 2017, U.S. District Court Judge Robert Sweet in Manhattan said “Street Survivors: The True Story of the Lynyrd Skynyrd Plane Crash,” based on recollections of former drummer Artimus Pyle, violated a 1988 consent order governing the use of the Lynyrd Skynyrd name. Sweet issued his 64-page decision after a non-jury trial on July 11-12, 2017. The case is Ronnie Van Zant Inc et al v. Pyle et al, U.S. District Court, Southern District of New York, No. 17-03360. Jonathan Stemple https://www.reuters.com/article/us-france-notredame-idUSKCN1B91OR
U.S. District Court Judge Jed S. Rakoff dismissed Sarah Palin's defamation lawsuit against The New York Times on August 29, 2017. Read opinion and order at