Friday, October 15, 2021

Valley City is an unincorporated community in central Liverpool TownshipMedina CountyOhio.  Settled in 1810, the surrounding township was established in 1816.  Together with Litchfield and York Townships, Liverpool Township composes the Buckeye Local School District.  Valley City is part of Ohio District 7 in the U.S. House of Representatives.  Valley City is known for being "The Frog Jump Capital of Ohio."  Since 1962, it has held an annual contest patterned after Mark Twain's story, "The Celebrated Jumping Frog of Calaveras County."  On April 2, 1964, two years after the first contest was held, Governor Jim Rhodes proclaimed this contest the official state frog jumping championship.  In 1969, a few Valley City champion frogs competed in the larger contest in Calaveras County, California, including one belonging to Governor Rhodes.  Today, the contest is held at the Mill Stream Park in early August.  In the early 1800s, due to the discovery of salt on the west side of Rocky River near Hardscrabble in Liverpool Township, this area, previously part of the Connecticut Western Reserve, was known as Valley Center.  The name was later changed to Valley City when local community leader Andrew "Cranky" Yandy made the case that the city was not technically in the center of the valley.,_Ohio  

How to Be More Tree:  Essential Life Lessons for Perennial Happiness  Liz Marvin, Annie Davidson (Illustrator)  This beautifully illustrated book brings together sixty essential life lessons inspired by the infinite wisdom of trees.  Trees do not have brains to think with, or nervous systems that cause them to feel things, and yet they are undeniably clever.  From their ability to adapt, to their understanding of the strength of networks and mutually beneficial relationships, they put us to shame with their natural ability to thrive, even when they find themselves in less than ideal environments.  We learn about the importance of asking for help when you need it from elms, who call in an army of parasitic wasps when they're being attacked by caterpillars.  And acacias, who look out for each other by producing a gas when they're being nibbled on by herbivores to warn their nearby friends, while the Chinese pistache show us the power in pacing yourself, and why slow growth can lead to stronger foundations.  From the importance of patience, to drawing strength from others, to weathering the storm, to dealing with life's most persistent irritants--this is a celebration of the heroes of the forest, and an essential companion for dipping into when we need a little inspiration.  128 pages, Kindle Edition  First published November 14, 2019   

More than a few bibliophiles would prefer that their prized possessions be kept in a bank vault as opposed to a bookshelf, but few actually get to see their dream in action.  Enter The Last Bookstore, an iconic Los Angeles book shop with a not-so-subtly symbolic name that is housed in the grand atrium of what was once a bank.  The marble pillars and mile-high ceiling remain from the old bank, but in place of patrons and guarded stacks of cash, bookshelves line the walls and artful displays of books abound.  Not to imply that everything is brand new and sparkly.  The bookstore actually specializes in reasonably priced used books, and takes great pride in offering a selection of well-kept vintage books as well.  Anyone who’s ever loved a vintage book will know exactly what that means for the musty, decadent smell that hangs in the air in this seemingly sacred place.  Almost as if to make a point about beauty in disarray, the bookshelves are placed every which way all throughout the store, and sculptures have been custom-built from overstocked or damaged copies.  There are even hidden nooks, like the old bank vault itself, where books are winkingly displayed.  There is a section of hardbacks arranged by color.  Most of the fiction is purposefully unarranged, meant to inspire treasure hunts among shoppers.  In short, every inch of the place is designed to make book lovers fall in love with it, and it succeeds.   

Twenty-one states have the distinction of being the birthplace of a president.  One president's birth state is in dispute; North and South Carolina (British colonies at the time) both lay claim to Andrew Jackson, who was born in 1767, in the Waxhaw region along their common border.  Jackson himself considered South Carolina as his birth state.  Born on December 5, 1782, Martin Van Buren was the first president born an American citizen (and not a British subject).  The term Virginia dynasty is sometimes used to describe the fact that four of the first five U.S. presidents were from Virginia.  The number of presidents born per state, counting Jackson as being from South Carolina, are:

One: ArkansasCaliforniaConnecticutGeorgiaHawaiiIllinoisIowaKentuckyMissouriNebraskaNew HampshireNew Jersey, and South Carolina

Two: North CarolinaPennsylvaniaTexas, and Vermont

Four: Massachusetts

Five: New York

Seven: Ohio

Eight: Virginia

Eleven states have one president.  Find list of U.S. Presidents indicating date of birth and state of birth at  

September 8, 2021  Over the course of the pandemic, we've seen all sorts of shortagesmeat and ketchup and Caffeine-Free Coke—and even the refrigerators you store all that stuff  in.  Luckily, we don't eat wood, because shifts in supply and demand have also caused the price of lumber to skyrocket around the globe.  But that doesn't mean the timber shortage isn't also hitting the food and beverage world:  Winemakers are reportedly struggling to score all the wood they're looking for.  The most obvious use of wood in winemaking is the barrel-aging process—but many wineries also use wood to package their most precious bottles.  Mike Pomranz   Thank you, Muse reader!    

National Dictionary Day in the United States celebrates the American lexicographer Noah Webster who was born on October 16, 1758.  Wiktionary   

West Virginia would love to have you.  That's the message the state is sending to urban residents across the country with a new program that gives remote workers $12,000, and a year-long pass to the state's grandest natural destinations, if they agree to relocate to the "Wild and Wonderful" state for at least two years.  The initiative is funded by former Intuit CEO Brad D. Smith and his spouse Alys, who launched the program to support economic development in Smith's home state.  It's currently accepting applications for remote workers who want to live in Morgantown; future slots will be for Lewisburg and Shepherdstown.  Program participants get cash every month, with the first $10,000 stretched out over 12 months.  The final $2,000 comes in the participant's second consecutive year of living in West Virginia.  Ally Schweitzer  Issue 2439  October 15, 2021


Wednesday, October 13, 2021

The snark is a fictional animal species created by Lewis Carroll in his nonsense poem The Hunting of the Snark.  According to Carroll, the initial inspiration to write the poem--which he called an agony in eight fits--was the final line, For the snark was a boojum, you see.  Carroll was asked repeatedly to explain the snark.  In all cases, his answer was he did not know and could not explain.  The poem describes several varieties of snark.  Some have feathers and bite, and some have whiskers and scratch.  The boojum is a particular variety of snark, which causes the baker at the end of the poem to "softly and suddenly vanish away, and never be met with again".  The snark's flavour is meager and hollow, but crisp (apparently like a coat too tight in the waist), with a flavour of will-o-the-wisp.  It is sometimes served with greens.  It also sleeps late into the day.  While the snark is very ambitious, and has very little sense of humor, it is very fond of bathing-machines, and constantly carries them about wherever it goes.  It is also handy for striking a light; the Annotated Snark suggests that this could mean either that its skin is useful for striking matches on, or that it breathes fire.  The domain of the snark is an island filled with chasms and crags, very distant from England.  On the same island may also be found other creatures such as the jubjub and bandersnatch.  The snark is a peculiar creature that cannot be captured in a commonplace way.  Above all, courage is required during a snark hunt.  The most common method is to seek it with thimbles, care, forks, and hope.  One may also "threaten its life with a railway share" or "charm it with smiles and soap". 

SNARK  verb  If someone snarks, they criticize another person in an unkind way.  [informal]  uncountable noun  Snark is unkind criticism of someone or something. 

Parrot tulips open their ruffled petals in mid to late spring after most other tulips have bloomed and faded, extending the color show.  Their huge blooms span up to 5 inches across, with streaks of color shooting through the petals like brilliant flames.  Tall, elegant stems give parrot tulips a statuesque posture that make them a standout in the garden and a striking addition to floral arrangements.  Parrot tulips are available in more than 50 varieties, most of which are multi-colored.  Some of the shades are revealed gradually, as the blooms fully open.  Anne Balogh   See pictures and planting tips at

Actress Audrey Hepburn was actually born Audrey Kathleen Ruston, and didn’t start using the name Audrey Hepburn until 1948.  In 1940 during German occupation, she also took on the pseudonym Edda van Heemstra.  This was because her “English sounding” birth-given name was deemed too dangerous for the time, so she used an alias to avoid being captured by Germans.  Audrey was fluent in English, Spanish, French, German, Italian, and Flemish (a variation of Dutch).  A hybrid breed to tulip was named after the star. The Netherlands Flower Information Society said that this act was “a tribute to the actress’s career and her longtime work on behalf of UNICEF.”   

This is a dude his ears protrude in most expansive magOnitudOde his OcolOlar of the latest date surrounds . . . A gaudy tie surrounds his throat . . . Here is his plated watch chain not the best . . .  See graphic with additional words at  Thank you, Muse reader!   

Concrete poetry is an arrangement of linguistic elements in which the typographical effect is more important in conveying meaning than verbal significance.  It is sometimes referred to as visual poetry, a term that has now developed a distinct meaning of its own.  Concrete poetry relates more to the visual than to the verbal arts although there is a considerable overlap in the kind of product to which it refers.  Historically, however, concrete poetry has developed from a long tradition of shaped or patterned poems in which the words are arranged in such a way as to depict their subject.  Though the term ‘concrete poetry’ is modern, the idea of using letter arrangements to enhance the meaning of a poem is old.  Such shaped poetry was popular in Greek Alexandria during the 3rd and 2nd centuries BCE, although only the handful which were collected together in the Greek Anthology now survive.  Examples include poems by Simmias of Rhodes in the shape of an egg, wings and a hatchet, as well as Theocritus’ pan-pipes.  The post-Classical revival of shaped poetry seems to begin with the Gerechtigkeitsspirale (spiral of justice), a relief carving of a poem at the pilgrimage church of St. Valentin in the German town of Hesse.  The text is carved in the form of a spiral on the front of one of the church pews and is one of several decorative designs there created in 1510 by master carpenter Erhart Falckener.   

Karen Tei Yamashita is published by Coffee House Press, a small independent publisher in Minneapolis, rather than a massive publisher in New York.  She has not won a fame-inducing prize like a Pulitzer, Booker, or National Book Award.  She also hasn’t picked a literary lane, not just in terms of form—writing novels, short stories, nonfiction, and plays—but in terms of style and themes as well, writing historical fiction, magical realism, postmodern maximalism, social realism, and more.  If you are new to Yamashita, this means her voice is so varied and playful and her topics so diverse that any book is an appropriate introduction.  Find a list of five of her books to help you find a place to start.  Josh Cook   

Rube Goldberg machine, named after American cartoonist Rube Goldberg, is a chain reaction-type machine or contraption intentionally designed to perform a simple task in an indirect and overly complicated way.  Usually, these machines consist of a series of simple unrelated devices; the action of each triggers the initiation of the next, eventually resulting in achieving a stated goal.  In the United Kingdom, a similar contrivance is referred to as a "Heath Robinson contraption" after cartoons by the illustrator W. Heath Robinson.  The design of such a "machine" is often presented on paper and would be impossible to implement in actuality.  More recently, such machines are being fully constructed for entertainment (for example, a breakfast scene in Peewee's Big Adventure) and in Rube Goldberg competitions.  Over the years, the expression has expanded to mean any confusing or overly complicated system.   

Ruth Irene Tompson (1910–October 10, 2021) was an American camera technician, animation checker and supercentenarian.  She was known for her work on animated features at The Walt Disney Company and was declared a Disney Legend in 2000.  Ruthie Tompson was born on July 22, 1910 in Portland, Maine and raised in Boston, Massachusetts.  She then moved with her family to Oakland, California in November 1918 at age eight.  In 1924, her parents divorced and her mother, Arlene, remarried artist John Roberts.  The family relocated to Los Angeles and their house was in the same block as the house of Robert Disney, uncle of Walt Disney.  This is where Roy and Walt Disney lived when they first came to Los Angeles.  See filmography at  Issue 2438  October 13, 2021

Tuesday, October 12, 2021

“I know that you know that sarcasm is the weapon of weakness.”  “You can be anonymous, that’s what’s the trouble with the Internet.”  “You belong to society, you give to society.”  The Burgess Boys, the fourth book by Elizabeth Strout, published in 2013.   

In 1811, an Old Fogey was a nickname for an invalid, wounded soldier; derived from the French fougueux (fierce or fiery).  old fogey (plural old fogies)  noun  (idiomatic)  An old and over-conservative personquotations ▼ Related terms  young fogey  fogey   

Cesare Pavese, (1908-1950), Italian poet, critic, novelist, and translator, who introduced many modern U.S. and English writers to Italy.  Born in a small town in which his father, an official, owned property, he moved with his family to Turin, where he attended high school and the university.  Denied an outlet for his creative powers by Fascist control of literature, Pavese translated many 20th-century U.S. writers in the 1930s and ’40s:  Sherwood AndersonGertrude SteinJohn SteinbeckJohn Dos PassosErnest Hemingway, and William Faulkner; a 19th-century writer who influenced him profoundly, Herman Melville (one of his first translations was of Moby Dick); and the Irish novelist James Joyce.  He also published criticism, posthumously collected in La letteratura americana e altri saggi (1951; American Literature, Essays and Opinions, 1970).  His work probably did more to foster the reading and appreciation of U.S. writers in Italy than that of any other single man.   

COMIC STRIP HUMOR  Cats are natural ignorers.  (Garfield)   

The earliest hand gesture emoji were a raised fist, a hand with two fingers making a "V" shape and an open raised palm.  Initially these represented "rock", "scissors" and "paper", though a "V" shape can also represent "peace" or "victory" and a raised fist "Black Lives Matter".  Lauren Gawne, a linguist at La Trobe University in Australia, is hoping that an emoji of a raised little finger will one day make the cut. This gesture might make English speakers think of "pinky promises" or even sipping tea, but in India it is a useful code for subtly asking for directions to the toilet.  The proposal for the raised little finger put forward by Gawne and her colleagues suggests it can mean:  fancy, classy, etiquette, promise, effort, toilet and power move.  William Park  Read extensive article at

A Mufti is an Islamic jurist qualified to issue a nonbinding opinion (fatwa) on a point of Islamic law (sharia).  The word mufti comes from the Arabic root f-t-y, whose meanings include "youth, newness, clarification, explanation."  A number of related terms derive from the same root.  A mufti's response is called a fatwa.  The person who asks a mufti for a fatwa is known as mustafti.  The act of issuing fatwas is called iftāʾ.  The term futyā refers to soliciting and issuing fatwas. 

Mufti is a 2017 Indian Kannada-language neo-noir action thriller film directed by Narthan, making his debut, and produced by Jayanna Combines.  The film tells the story of a police officer, played by Sriimurali, who tracks down and confronts an underworld boss, played by Shiva Rajkumar.  Production started in July 2016, and the film was released on 1 December 2017.  Initial reception of the film was positive.  It was declared blockbuster of the Year.  And was one of the highest-grossing movies in Shivarajkumar film career. 

A mufti day (also known as casual clothes day, casual Friday, colour day, own clothes day, home clothes day, plain clothes day, non-uniform day, free dress day, civvies day, dress down day, uniform-free day) is a day where students and staff go to school in casual clothing instead of school uniform.  This is found in many countries where students are required to wear uniform, including the United Kingdom, Ireland, Canada, Fiji, Australia, India, New Zealand, Nigeria, South Africa, Zimbabwe, Pakistan and Bangladesh. 

Gary: A Sequel to Titus Andronicus is a play written by Taylor Mac.  The play is set in the aftermath of William Shakespeare's Titus Andronicus.  The play premiered on Broadway in April 2019 starring Nathan Lane and received seven Tony Award nominations.  The play premiered on Broadway at the Booth Theatre in previews on March 11, 2019 and officially on April 21.  The cast consisted of Nathan Lane (Gary), Kristine Nielsen (Janice), and Julie White (Carol).  The production was directed by George C. Wolfe and produced by Scott Rudin, with scenic design by Santo Loquasto, costume design by Ann Roth, and lighting design by Jules Fisher and Peggy Eisenhauer.  The play received seven Tony Award nominations, including for Best Play and Best Featured Actress in a Play (White and Nielsen).  The play closed on June 16, 2019 after 45 previews and 65 regular performances.  Thank you, Muse reader! 

Taylor Mac (born Taylor Mac Bowyer 1973) is an American actor, playwright, performance artist, director, producer, and singer-songwriter active mainly in New York City.  In 2017, Mac was the recipient of a "Genius Grant" from the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation.  Mac was a finalist for the 2017 Pulitzer Prize for Drama.  See awards, residencies and bibliography at 

The rare noun wether means a castrated male sheep.  The word bellwether (from the Middle English bellewether) originally referred to a wether that wore a bell around his neck and led the herd.  Today, while herders may still use the term in that sense, the word is more often used metaphorically, meaning one that serves as a leader or as a leading indicator of future trendsBellwether may be a noun or an adjective.  The word is occasionally misspelled bellweather, perhaps partially because bellwethers sometimes predict the weather.   

Official 'Ted Lasso' biscuit recipe  Issue 2437  October 12, 2021 

Monday, October 11, 2021

In 1933, Girl Scouts of Greater Philadelphia Council baked cookies and sold them in the city's gas and electric company windows.  The price was just 23 cents per box of 44 cookies, or six boxes for $1.24!  Girls developed their marketing and business skills and raised funds for their local Girl Scout council.  A year later, Greater Philadelphia took cookie sales to the next level, becoming the first council to sell commercially baked cookies.  In 1935, the Girl Scout Federation of Greater New York raised money through the sale of commercially baked cookies.  Buying its own die in the shape of a trefoil, the group used the words “Girl Scout Cookies” on the box.  In 1936, the national Girl Scout organization began the process of licensing the first commercial bakers to produce cookies that would be sold nationwide by girls in Girl Scout councils. 

GIRL SCOUT COOKIE FROM 1917 recipe by LilPinkieJ


The term "goldbricking" originates from the unethical practice of coating bricks with gold plates, to pass them off as solid gold (hiding the cheap metal they were actually made of).  At first, it referred to outright fraud.  By the turn of the 20th century, the meaning had expanded to be something or someone deceptive.  In World War I, incompetent U.S. Army officers appointed from civilian life with only minimal training were called "gold bricks" by enlisted men (possibly inspired by the gold rectangle that signified the rank of second lieutenant).  Goldbricking in the modern sense of malingering developed around the time of World War II, in the U.S. Army.  The term was extended to refer to anybody not pulling his weight—a loafer who gives the appearance of working without actually accomplishing much (presumably, they'd do anything, including sell fake gold bricks, rather than an honest day’s work).   After the war, "goldbricking" and "goldbricker" started getting applied in civilian life as well. 

Greenroom  Etymologists trace the origin of this term for an actors' lounge to what was called "the assembly room" at London's Dorset Garden theater during the late 1600s.  We don't know whether this assembly room was painted green or decorated with green plants.  But when the Dorset merged with the Drury Lane theater in 1682 and shifted its performances to the Drury, the Dorset actors complained about missing their "greenroom" at the Dorset (along with a lot of other things, like not getting a larger percentage of the international box office gross).  By the early 1700s, "greenroom" had become a generic term for a holding room in a theater.

Blue Streak  Early European settlers of North America found the intensity and frequency of its lightning storms, well . . . striking.  Seeing a bolt of lightning instantaneously zap a barn left two key impressions on pioneers:  Lightning bolts were speedy and they were bluish in color.  So, by the early 1840s, anything that moved fast—a horse, a train and a farmer fleeing lightning—was said to be galloping, chugging or running "like a blue streak."  And when someone talked rapidly, like a mine promoter, for instance, he was said to be "talking a blue streak."   

The term “viscose” refers to the viscous organic liquid which is regenerated into fibers for making the fabric.  Viscose rayon is derived from cellulose, the main constituent of plant cell walls.  Cellulose is treated with chemicals to make a fiber mimicking the qualities of natural fibers, such as silk and cotton.  Viscose fabric often looks like silk and feels like cotton.  Some of the common trees and plants from which viscose rayon is derived:  Beech, Pine, Spruce, Hemlock, Eucalyptus, Bamboo, Soy and Sugarcane.

Martha Ann (sometimes Anne) Honeywell (1786–1856) was an American disabled artist, who produced silhouettes and embroidery using only her mouth and her toes, often in public performances.  A native either of LempsterNew Hampshire, or of WestchesterNew York, Honeywell was born without hands or forearms, and had only three toes on one foot.  One of her advertisements claimed she stood only three feet tall.  See graphics at

Namby-pamby is a term for affected, weak, and maudlin speech/verse.  It originates from Namby Pamby (1725) by Henry Carey.  Carey wrote his poem as a satire of Ambrose Philips and published it in his Poems on Several Occasions.  Alexander Pope had criticized Philips repeatedly (in The Guardian and in his Peri Bathos, among other places), and praising or condemning Philips was a political as much as poetic matter in the 1720s, with the nickname also employed by John Gay and Jonathan Swift.  Carey's Namby Pamby had enormous success.  It became so successful that people began to call Philips himself "Namby Pamby" (as, for example, in The Dunciad in 1727), as he had been renamed by the poem, and Carey was referred to as "Namby Pamby Carey".  The poem sold well and he used this style in various other short poems.  See also

The New York Public Library system will not charge fines on overdue materials, and all library card holders have had their accounts cleared of any prior late fees or fines, including replacement fees for lost materials, the NYPL announced on October 5, 2021, in what it called a change intended to level the playing field for all library patrons and encourage use of library resources.  In April, the Boston Public Library system committed to eliminating all late fees after previously nixing overdue fines for minors.  The Burbank Public Library system in California wiped all patron accounts clean in July and announced that it would no longer charge late fees, in a move intended to increase access.  "While fines for overdue items may seem like a small burden, they can create a major barrier to service for those who are struggling financially," the Burbank release stated.  "Too many people have made the choice to stop using the Library because of inability to pay or fear of accruing fines."  The San Diego Public Library scrapped fines back in 2019, as did the Chicago Public Library.  And these increasingly popular initiatives have been proven successful:  After the policy change, Chicago public libraries saw an increase in returned materials as well as library card renewals, according to a previous NPR report.  Sharon Pruitt-Young   

Columbus Day commemorates the date when Christopher Columbus first set foot in the Americas.  In the USA it is observed on the Second Monday in October.  Though Columbus Day is one of the 10 U.S. legal federal holidays, it is not considered a major one.  There will be no postal service.  It is a Federal Reserve Bank holiday, so while banks may open, some transactions will not be processed.  Most businesses remain open and retail stores may run special sales.  The New York Stock Exchange and Nasdaq remain open on this federal holiday.  In addition to a state level, in many cities, the day is now celebrated as Native Americans’ Day or Indigenous People’s Day.  Link to state by state guide and Columbus Day quiz at  Issue 2436  October 11, 2021

Friday, October 8, 2021

Roland Vinyard has published a factual novel about the mysterious death of a former friend which has haunted him, and many others, for four decades.  The long-researched and profusely illustrated, “The Ballad of Pete Hauer (It Was Caves that Pete Loved the Best),” details the bizarre late 1970’s death of Pete Hauer, a man the author said “used to be one of my best friends.”  The strange story begins in the late 1960s, when Vinyard—living in West Virginia and working as a historian at Gettysburg Park—and his friend, Pete Hauer, bonded over an interest in cave exploration.  After quitting his job as an environmental educator, Hauer bought a small farm in West Virginia.  The property had a “bad house and a bad barn,” but was available for only $4,500.  The not-entirely-ideal land, however, did contain a saltpeter cave—valuable to Hauer not only because the substance is an ingredient in gunpowder, but also because he was one of the nation’s leading authorities in saltpeter studies.  Hauer—exploring horrible cries coming from outside his home—found his animals brutally murdered.  The killings baffled those who knew Hauer, his loved ones wondering what anybody could possibly have against him.  It turned out the animal slayings were committed by an “anti-hippy” neighbor, the incident unfortunately being just the first in a long line of enduring horrors that precipitated several decades of inquiries into the life and activities of Pete Hauer.  After further downturns in Hauer’s life, a local student working in a nearby park—which Hauer had also worked at—went missing.  Wondering whether the missing man could’ve potentially disappeared into a local cave, authorities approached Hauer—a known cave expert—for assistance.  In a twist nobody expected, Hauer then mysteriously vanished.  In searching for Hauer, police eventually made a startling discovery in his home— a letter wherein he not only willed all of his possessions to various people, but also admitted to murdering the missing man.  The letter led authorities to the man’s body—discovered in Hauer’s saltpeter cave.  “The boy had been found, but now Pete was missing,” said Vinyard, explaining that a several month, nationwide search for Hauer turned up nothing.  Around Thanksgiving, one of Hauer’s neighbors and his son were out hunting.  As they sat down to eat, the boy spotted something unusual nearby.  “They realized it was decomposed remains—partially in a tree and partly on the ground,” said Vinyard.  Having known Hauer, the boy who discovered the body instantly recognized his boots.  The many whys and hows of this twisted tale have remained with not only Vinyard, but many across the state of West Virginia and beyond, for 40 years.  The book tells the mysterious story in detail, discussing all possible options while providing extensive evidence, including FBI files, color images created by the author, black and white photos, maps, and Hauer’s confession note.  Quotes acquired by the author across his years of research serve as introductions to each chapter.  In 2012, Vinyard held a concert at his Sprakers home (the public events taking place regularly) wherein an artist used a crankie—a 19th century form of storytelling utilizing a long, illustrated scroll.  Vinyard and his wife were inspired to create a crankie detailing Hauer’s story, set to accompany a song Vinyard had written about Hauer.  A 26-foot long quilt was created by Vinyard’s wife, as he constructed an apparatus to display it on.  Joshua Thomas 

What can a love triangle from 200 years ago reveal about the quelling of women’s ambition?   Quite a bit, according to University of Delaware professor and religious historian Christine Leigh Heyrman.  Her book, Doomed Romance: Broken Hearts, Lost Souls and Sexual Tumult in Nineteenth-Century America, explores the paradoxical nature of the 1800s evangelical Protestant movement, which elevated women as swiftly as it undermined them.  Told through the story of Martha Parker, “It Girl” of the 1820s, we learn how a jilted suitor and his network of powerful allies vengefully turned the young Parker into a cautionary tale for ambitious women of her generation. 

Golden Rule—whoever has the gold makes the rules. *  Old Sana’a is famous for the tower houses which you can see rising up to ten stories above the walls.  There are thousands of them, some going back to the eleventh century, and they are said to be the world’s first skyscrapers.”  The Panther, John Corey novel #6 by Nelson DeMille 

tower house:  a tall, fortified stone building intended for habitation.  See also and 

bazaar or souk, is a permanently enclosed marketplace or street where goods and services are exchanged or sold.  The term bazaar originates from the Persian word bāzār.  The term bazaar is sometimes also used to refer to the "network of merchantsbankers and craftsmen" who work in that area.  Although the word "bazaar" is of Persian origin, its use has spread and now has been accepted into the vernacular in countries around the world.  Evidence for the existence of bazaars or souks dates to around 3,000 BCE.

Lucius Livius Andronicus, (born c. 284 BCTarentumMagna Graecia [now Taranto, Italy]—died c. 204 BC, Rome?), founder of Roman epic poetry and drama.  He was a Greek slave, freed by a member of the Livian family; he may have been captured as a boy when Tarentum surrendered to Rome in 272 BC.  A freedman, he earned his living teaching Latin and Greek in Rome.  His main work, the Odyssia, a translation of Homer’s Odyssey, was possibly done for use as a schoolbook. 

Titus Andronicus, an early, experimental tragedy by William Shakespeare, written sometime in 1589–92 and published in a quarto edition from an incomplete draft in 1594.  The First Folio version was prepared from a copy of the quarto, with additions from a manuscript that had been used as a promptbook.   The play’s crude, melodramatic style and its numerous savage incidents led many critics to believe it was not written by Shakespeare.  Modern criticism, however, tends to regard the play as authentic.  Although not ranked with Shakespeare’s other great Roman plays, Titus Andronicus relates its story of revenge and political strife with a uniformity of tone and consistency of dramatic structure.  Sources for the story include Euripides’ HecubaSeneca’s Thyestes and Troades, and parts of Ovid and Plutarch 

October 8 is the eve of the second Saturday of October in 2021, which is the second of the two World Migratory Bird Days in the year.  These days were established by the Secretariats of the Agreement on the Conservation of African-Eurasian Migratory Waterbirds and the Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals to highlight the importance of protecting migratory birds and their habitats.  Wiktionary  Issue 2435  October 8, 2021